1900 A nice round number. Back then, more than three-quarters of the 28 Jesuit colleges and universities in the United States today were up and running, as was the case with more than half of the current 46 Jesuit high schools.

2000 An even rounder number. Are we in the last year of the twentieth century or the first of the twenty-first? We will not spend these pages in that debate. Instead, let's take advantage of the fact that the year 2000 happens to be a nice vantage point from which to look back and see what has changed and what has stayed the same in just a few Jesuit ministries in the last 100 years. Consider the difference electricity, telephones, computers, and airplanes alone have made on the work of the missionaries, the editors, the superior generals, the teachers, and the others you will meet in these next pages.

Their ministries have been called upon to reinvent themselves in the face of changing demands and changing possibilities while remaining true to their missions. Their responses to these last 100 years are a good demonstration of the adaptability of the principles of the Ignatian vision.


Swiss Jesuit Fr. John Buschor (1872-1949) joined the Jesuits' California Mission (later the California Province) from the Buffalo Mission back east and taught at Santa Clara at the turn of the century.

Santa Clara University

Looking back at my fifteen years of teaching at Santa Clara brings a smile not only from memories of generous and good colleagues and students but also from a sense of what changes and what doesn't at a university. A senior faculty (many of whom have taught here for 25, 30, or even 40 years) provides a perspective on what we do and an insight into our 150-year history; they also let the rest of us feel like "young" faculty!

Whatever our differences, we have managed to explore together the meaning of Ignatian education and a commitment to justice informed by faith.

Silvia Figuerira

Dr. Silvia Figueira, from Brazil, assistant professor of computer engineering at Santa Clara University, earned a PhD in the field from UC San Diego.

In these fifteen years we've come a long way toward articulating a shared vision and connecting the classroom to the community. We see a much more diverse student body. We've also added faculty, buildings, new technologies, and online resources. But (and here's that smile again) despite our presence in the midst of Silicon Valley and all the progress that that brings, a professor from 1900 (or 1300 for that matter) could probably step into a classroom today and do quite well with a chalkboard and challenging questions.

Fr. Paul Soukup, SJ
Associate Professor of Communications

Horsemanship was one of the vocational tech subjects taught around the turn of the century at the Jesuits' Red Cloud Indian School.


Red Cloud Indian School
Pine Ridge, South Dakota

They've become a part of my personal history, though some of them long ago drifted from my life. Teachers for only a year or two, they never cease working their influence on me. The gentle ones, the harsh ones, the jovial ones-each left a permanent mark on my impressionable mind.

One was Fr. Bill, a tall, young priest who would terrorize me and my classmates with daily evaluations of our grammar, our style of writing. When I went to work for Red Cloud, he became a colleague. He looked refined from the years that had passed, but not all that much older than when I sat through his class, giving recitations from MacBeth. We reminisced about our shared past, the literature, the writing, and the discipline he felt compelled to impose because "your parents sacrificed to give you a good education."

Woman at Indian School

Red Cloud Indian School has been educating students like Agnus Steele since 1888.

I recall my father speaking of Red Cloud back in the 1950s, of how it prepared students academically and vocationally. He told of students going to school for half a day and working the other half. Jesuit brothers taught young men ranching, carpentry, farming, and plumbing; Franciscan sisters taught young women sewing, cooking, laundry, and secretarial skills.

I am fortunate to have the gift of Red Cloud teachers who nurtured and challenged what they knew we had inside.

Ms. Tina Meridian
Director of Public Relations

Jesuit novices construct a baseball diamond in Los Gatos, California, ca. 1898.

Novices at the California novitiate in Culver City, near Los Angeles, hosted their fellow novices from the Oregon Province.

Jesuit Novitiate

The two words that come to mind as I reflect on my years as director of novices are diversity and fatherhood. I have had the humbling honor of welcoming novices from eight countries with personal accounts of the ways God has led them from oppression and privilege, deprivation and good fortune, persecution and true freedom, to seek him in all things as a Jesuit. They resemble the reality of California, now the first state composed entirely of minorities. As I share my love for the Church and the Society with these men, I am aware that as a celibate religious this will be the closest experience I will ever have as a father: a provider and sharer of life. Just before I began my work in the novitiate in 1994, an older and much wiser novice director from another province told me that this position was the best kept secret in the Society. Now, after six years, I could not agree more.

Fr. Bob Fambrini, SJ
Director of Novices

The Jesuit Curia

Fr. Wlodimir Ledochowski, SJ, the Society's 26th general, held the position from 1915 to 1940.

Pedro Arrupe, SJ

Fr. Pedro Arrupe, SJ, the Society's general from 1965 to 1983, got a shoeshine and quickly returned the favor.

A towering figure in Jesuit circles in the twentieth century was Fr. Wlodimir Ledochowski, SJ, elected 26th general of the Society in February 1915. He served until his death in December 1940. Elected during the turmoil of World War I, he governed the Society from Switzerland for three years to lessen the impact of that war on Jesuit matters. He went to Spain twice during 25 years as general, but hardly ever traveled beyond that.

In those more formal days, "exterior reverence" to the general prevailed. Jesuits kissed the hand of the general, addressing him as "Your Paternity." Other superiors (and even the priests when dealing with scholastics or brothers) were "Your Reverence." Like other superiors, the general had a fixed place in the refectory and in the recreation room. Much less formality exists today.

Fr. Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, SJ, succeeded Arrupe to became the Society's 29th general in 1983.


An important part of the general's work is communication: gathering information, making appointments, encouraging Jesuits worldwide. Fr. Ledochowski experienced both more rapid communication and a growing number of questions and issues with a world in turmoil. In voluminous correspondence he tried to adjust Jesuit life to rapid technological and political change.

Fr. Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, the Jesuits' general since 1983, experiences even more rapid means of communication and questions and issues, but he is also able to travel and meet Jesuits all over the world and to invite individuals and groups to come to meet with him. But he still signs something like 17,000 letters a year and has vast amounts of information to absorb.

Fr. Josť M. de Vera, SJ
Secretary for Communications

St. Ignatius College Prep

"The more things change, the more they stay the same," a French philosopher said back in 1849 - just 20 years before St. Ignatius College Prep was founded! In our case, the saying is appropriate, and these two photographs illustrate my point.

St. Ignatius physics students busy themselves with an electrical experiment, ca. 1940.

Integrated science teacher Katie Baal ('90) shows students how to track the heartbeat of a fellow student.

The first shows students in the 1940s taking a physics class on electricity. The second, taken in the late 1990s, shows integrated science students using an EKG computer simulation to observe normal heart patterns in a classmate.

Until a fire destroyed our classroom wing in 1991, our labs looked as they had 100 years before. We rebuilt and caught up with technology with lightning speed. Students started using computers in lab work; geometry teachers started using a program that interfaced with students' calculators. And then we went wireless: teachers, each with a laptop computer, now access the Internet, the school network, and our library from anywhere in the building; they can check out a computer projector and 25 laptops for their students' use. Some teachers even have their own websites to help students with homework assignments.

Computers are exciting, but students trained in the Jesuit tradition must understand basic principles before they allow a machine to help them think further. There is no computer program that can give a kid the experience of learning how a heart pumps or a light bulb glows. Our students will continue to learn the basics the old-fashioned way. Some things will never change!

Ms. Lynn Young
Director of Communications

Early Pastor of Sacred Heart

Fr. Alfred Latiolais, SJ, Sacred Heart's pastor and missionary to Catholics in the surrounding area from 1912 until 1929, got around to his various congregations at a trot.

Sacred Heart Church

During my first week as pastor of Sacred Heart Parish in Tampa, I found a note left on my desk by the parish archivist. It read: "You are the thirty-ninth pastor, the twenty-ninth Jesuit pastor, of Sacred Heart Church."

Wedding at Sacred Heart

Fr. Kirk Mansell, SJ, Sacred Heart's 39th pastor, celebrates a wedding.

My personal association with Sacred Heart goes back to 1959 when my family moved to Tampa. The association was strengthened in September 1984, when I was ordained to the priesthood in Sacred Heart, and later, in 1997, when I was named its pastor.

Jesuits have been at this parish for 112 years. Coming to St. Louis Church in 1888, they planned a new church with a new name: Sacred Heart. Finished in 1904 and dedicated in 1905, Sacred Heart was designed to be an imposing presence in Tampa, the center of a missionary effort in central and south Florida and the "mother" of all Florida's Jesuit missions. Fifty current parishes here trace their origin to Sacred Heart.

In the early days of the 1900s the parish concern was money to build and finance the mission work of the Jesuits. Today the concern is to preserve not only the beautiful building but also the faith that was given to us, a faith that has been taught through the magnificent stained-glass windows that date to 1906.

My horse-riding predecessor did not have to deal with major maintenance problems; the church was new. On the other hand, I don't have to rely on a horse for transportation. What we both rely upon is the guidance and the help of God who brings all things to a good end.

Fr. Kirk Mansell, SJ

Jesuit Missions

Missionary Fr. Allan Stevenson, SJ, rides a mahogany tractor in Belize ca. 1915.

Fr. John Ruoff, SJ, now in St. Louis, spent 40 years in Belize as missionary and pastor.

The Midwest Jesuit Archives holds countless letters and reports written by Jesuits who have lived through the last 107 years of Belize's history. Since 1893 Missouri Province Jesuits have worked in this tiny country in Central America roughly the size of Massachusetts.

Postcards depict Belize as a balmy tropical paradise, home to exotic flora and fauna, but the flip side includes occasional devastating hurricanes, a high insect population and accompanying illnesses, language challenges, often primitive modes of travel, and other such "inconveniences." This flip side may be why some of the articles in the archives refer to the Jesuits in Belize as "rough bush" missionaries.

Letters between the missionaries and their superiors show that over the years they worked through all types of adverse conditions with an equanimity that can only be attributed to the practice of the Ignatian concept of "finding God in all things." It has worked in the past. It is still working today in the 20 or so Jesuits who staff St. John's College or serve in parishes in Belize.

Ms. Nancy Merz, Associate Archivist
Midwest Jesuit Archives

Recent Issue of AmericaFirst Issue of America

America magazine
New York

On February 6, 1909, seven Jesuits moved into a house on Washington Square in Greenwich Village in lower Manhattan to start America, a weekly review sponsored by the Jesuit provincials in the United States.

Its first issue, April 17, 1909, had 26 pages of solid print. An editorial announcement, swiping a few phrases from Cardinal Newman, said the newcomer was to be "a periodical which would induce Catholics to take an intelligent interest in public affairs."

John Wynne, SJ

Fr. John Wynne, SJ, (1859-1948) America magazine's founding editor.

A yearly subscription back then was $3; by the end of 1909 there were 17,500 subscribers. In July of this year, there were 41,406 subscribers at $43 a year. Printing and production changes have brought color, graphics, and pictures to its pages. Changes in the Church and society have also had their effects. For instance, in 1909 the provincials wondered if the names of women writers for the magazine should be printed. They were. Today, one of its editors is a woman.

America's offices, 1959

The year: 1959. The place: America magazine's editorial offices, 329 W. 108th Street, New York. The people: Fr. Eugene Culhane, SJ, America's managing editor, and Fr. Neil McCluskey, SJ, associate editor.

Since it must respond to the "signs of the times," topics touched on by America have changed along with the social and political environment. Vatican II was a defining moment for America, which today contains a greater diversity of opinion than it did in the past.

For the 50th Anniversary issue (April 11, 1959), philosopher Jacques Maritain sent congratulations. He found in the weekly, he said, "the sense of eternal truths and the sense of progress which is characteristic, in my opinion, of American Jesuits." This would have pleased America's founder and first editor-in-chief, Fr. John Wynne, SJ, who wanted to create, he said, "a high class and thoroughly Catholic" journal of opinion. Continuing this tradition in the spirit of Vatican II and expanding it to the Internet [www.americamagazine.org] are among my current goals for America, a weekly magazine for thinking Catholics and those who want to know what Catholics are thinking.

Fr. Thomas Reese, SJ

Current employee at the Sacred Heart Program

Current producer and engineer Trish Muyco does some studio work: voicing the script for one of Contact's programs.

Sacred Heart Program
St. Louis

"You'll reach more souls in one fifteen-minute broadcast than by preaching every Sunday for the rest of your life," Fr. Eugene Murphy, SJ, once said to a reluctant Jesuit speaker on the Sacred Heart Program. Fr. Murphy founded it in 1939 to spread the love of God, symbolized by the Sacred Heart of Jesus, first on radio and then on television.

Brother Rueppel

Br. George Rueppel, SJ, a physicist at Saint Louis University, started WEW, the oldest radio station west of the Mississippi, in 1921.

Fr. Murphy's work took advantage of that of Br. George Rueppel, SJ, (1864-1947) an experimental physicist at Saint Louis University. Br. Rueppel set up the university's radio station, WEW, recognized by the government as the first west of the Mississippi. He stuck a microphone in front of a phonograph to broadcast music; he also broadcast masses and other services; one of his programs became the Sacred Heart Hour, the precursor of Murphy's Sacred Heart Program.

Contact, as today's Sacred Heart Program is known, gives a voice to the voiceless, especially the poor, disadvantaged, and marginalized among us, a reflection of the Jesuit commitment to promoting justice.

Mr. Gary Kolarcik

Holy Cross alumni enjoy a tea on Beaven Terrace in 1920.

Holy Cross Alumni, 1920

College of the Holy Cross
Worcester, Massachusetts

"College should tremble in our memory like a dazzling blur of energy," says playwright John Guare. At last year's Holy Cross reunion weekend, I attended the dinner for the 50th reunion class, where the men were inducted into the Purple Knights. My late father, Jim Buckley, was a proud member of that group-class of '49-so my mother and I attended. Fifteen widows of members of the class returned for the reunion to see old friends and to honor their husbands' strong relationships with Holy Cross.

Despite inevitable changes in the college (the presence of women since 1972 as one striking example) and changes in themselves since these men first drove up Linden Lane, they are passionate about Holy Cross. They wear lots of purple, know all of the words to "Mamie Reilly," and are proud that Fr. John Brooks, SJ, president emeritus, is a classmate. They personify loyalty.

Alumni, 2000

Many Holy Cross alumni events are family affairs now.

I occasionally wonder why so many Holy Cross alumni are so loyal to their alma mater. Our mission statement, the Jesuit/Catholic nature, the high academic standards-all are clues to understanding the intensity of our bonds to Holy Cross. But it probably has more to do with the friendships formed here-in the case of the '49ers, friendships going strong after more than 50 years.

There's something special about this "Hill of Pleasant Springs and lumpy mattresses," as my father called it. There's something elusive and indescribable that-then and now-forges enduring loyalty.

Ms. Katharine Buckley McNamara '81
Director, Public Affairs

Jesuit Missions

Jesuit in Alaska

"It was a cool morning, in the 40s, I believe, that's why the hat and gloves," says Fr. Gene Delmore, SJ, remembering this boat trip that led him from St. Mary's to Mt. Village, Alaska, on the Yukon. "I've been pastor in Bethel since January '98. It's nice not to live out of a suitcase all the time."

The first Jesuit missionaries in Alaska came north in 1886 via the Chilkoot Trail. They wintered in Canada. In the spring of 1887 they floated down the Yukon River into Alaska in rough-hewn rowboats. Boats-canoes, rowboats, stern wheelers, mission steamers, "kickerboats"-served generations of Alaskan missionaries as the basic means of summer transportation.

Alaska 1904

Fr. John Lucchesi, SJ, visits Ursuline nuns and their students at a convent in Akulurak, Alaska, in 1904.

In winter they traveled to their widely scattered mission stations by dogsled or snowshoe. Several decades ago travel by snow machine, "the iron dog," replaced travel by dogsled. After World War II, year-round travel by air became commonplace. It was not until 1958, however, that an Alaskan Jesuit missionary first earned a pilot's license. In so doing, he launched a whole new era of missionary travel in bush Alaska. Many Alaskan Jesuit missionaries have since earned their pilot's licenses and piloted their own planes. The late Bp. Michael Kaniecki, SJ, was a pilot for over 35 years. An airplane propeller is prominent on his coat of arms. He was piloting the mission plane-a Cessna 207-less than three hours before his death of a massive heart attack while on a confirmation tour in western Alaska.

Fr. Louis Renner, SJ
Editor, Alaskan Shepherd

Sts. Peter and Paul

Parishoners of Peter and Paul

Irene Smokosa, Willa Henry, Eleanore Hausner, and Lita Isip are a few of the members of Sts. Peter and Paul's Silver Jet Set, an active group carrying on ministries in which the parish has been involved since the turn of the century.

When Fr. Ferdinand Weinman came to Sts. Peter and Paul in downtown Detroit in 1898, the parish, which had been founded in 1844 and staffed by Jesuits since 1877, drew its parishioners from "quality" folk who lived on Jefferson Avenue in view of the church, working-class people who lived north of the church, and the poor who lived along the Detroit River.

Parishoner Josephine Brownson

Sts. Peter and Paul parishioner Josephine Brownson received a medal from Pope Pius XI in 1933 for her devotion to the instruction of Catholic school children.

After he learned their language, Fr. Weinman began working with the Italian immigrants on the riverfront. He founded a settlement house in a parishioner's barn, a safe refuge away from the area's street brawls.

Josephine Van Dyke Brownson (left) helped organize the Weinman Club in 1908, two years after Fr. Weinman's death, to continue his ministry to the poor. This tradition of giving is actively carried on by members of the parish's "Silver Jet Set," who work parish events and collect donations for the parish's warming center, which meets the needs of 80-100 people daily by offering a place to sleep, watch TV, clean their clothes, and have something to eat. Miss Louise Wendling, now 97 and a parishioner since 1935, is still actively involved in the group. Mrs. Charles T. Fisher (née Briggs, who owned the Detroit Tigers), now in her nineties, still attends services on occasion.

Mr. Timothy Kushner
Pastoral Associate

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